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Russia Plans To Disconnect From The Global Internet

Russia Plans To Disconnect From The Global Internet

The Russian government accompanied with major internet providers has planned to briefly disconnect the entire country from the global internet. This test will completely isolate the Russian internet aka Runet from the rest of the world.

The primary reason behind this internet shutdown is to test the security of Russian data. So here’s everything you need to know about the internet shutdown test in Russia.

ALSO READ: Here’s one way to make the Internet of Things a connected reality

Russia Plans To Disconnect From The Global Internet

For a limited period of time, the Russian government will completely disconnect Russia from the global internet. The Internet shutdown test in Russia will impact private citizens, power grids and even the military systems.

According to some reliable sources, the test will last for about 30 minutes and it will be conducted before 1st April. Every major Russian ISP will redirect all network traffic to nodes that are controlled by the Russian government.

This test will include the creation of an alternative domain name system (DNS) to protect the Russian-language section of the internet if in case it is disconnected from the World Wide Web.

The test will also help the Russian Government to gather insight and provide additional feedback and modifications to proposed laws.

Russian Internet Shutdown Test: Benefits

The Internet shutdown test will help the Russian government to monitor and completely abandon the websites containing banned information. In addition to that, the test will allow centralized control to all of the national internet traffic and also minimize the transfer of data to foreign servers.

Well, the Russian government carried out a drill back in mid-2014 to gather people’s response on the internet being disconnected from the web. The test will probably cost around 23 billion rubles or roughly $350 million.

Do share your thoughts and opinions on the internet shutdown test in Russia in the comments section below.

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What is DNS? | How does it works? | Explanation

What is DNS

What is DNS?

The term DNS stands for “Domain Name System“.

It’s a process, through which the internet provides the user with the most accurate and desired results.

By this, a user is able to get what he or she wished to search for and it’s often called as the Phonebook or Directory of the internet.

Why? 

Because as we all know that the Web Browsers on the internet interact through IP addresses.

These IP addresses are very hard to find and remember by a normal human being. So DNS converts or translates those IP addresses into Domain Names ( Name of the websites ) or vice versa.

Also Read – 10 Of The Best DNS Servers For Gaming In 2019

How does it work?

As we all know that the devices connected to the internet have their own IP addresses. It means the websites stored on the Server also have their own.

So, if a user wants to search for a particular website then he/she has to search for the Domain Name only as the DNS system will automatically translate the Domain Name into IP address to match the desired result.

In simple words, the DNS system converts the Host Name ( Such as Google.com ) into a computer-friendly IP address ( Such as 192.168.1.1 ).

The process behind the DNS Resolution

In order to understand the process behind the DNS resolution, it’s important to learn about the different hardware components related to the DNS query.

There are total 4 DNS servers that work Behind the Scenes:

  • DNS Recursor – The first is DNS Recursor. It’s a specially designed server, which is used to receive the queries from the client’s machine ( such as Web Browser ). It then makes some additional requests to satisfy the client’s DNS query. In simple words, it basically acts as a librarian who is asked to go find a particular book somewhere in a library.
  • ROOT nameserver – The next in the list is Root Server, which is the first in translating Hostnames into IP addresses. You can say it’s like indexing the books into different book racks of the library.
  • TLD nameserver – It can be thought of a specific rack of books in the library. The Nameserver is the next further step in the search for a specific IP address. For example in the host Google.com, “.com” is the TLD server.
  • Authoritative nameserver – The last server on this list is Authoritative nameserver which can be thought of a dictionary on a rack of books, in which a specific name can be translated into its definition. If the authoritative name server has access to the requested record, it will return the IP address for the requested hostname back to the DNS Recursor ( the librarian ) that made the initial request.

Also Read – Change Your Default DNS To Cloudflare DNS For Fast Internet Speed

Conclusion

So this was all regarding what is DNS and how it works?. If you find it helpful then do let us know in the comment section below, would love to hear that.

Stay tuned for more.

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Cloudflare launches its 1.1.1.1 DNS service for Android and iOS smartphones

Cloudflare launches its 1.1.1.1 DNS service for Android and iOS smartphones

Cloudflare’s privacy-focused 1.1.1.1 DNS service now available on iOS and Android

Earlier this year, Cloudfare Inc., a website performance and security company, had rolled out a new free public domain name system (DNS) resolver service with 1.1.1.1 as its IP address on April Fool’s day. The company has now released the mobile apps of the 1.1.1.1 privacy-first DNS resolver service for Android and iOS users.

“The 1.1.1.1. app makes your Internet faster and more private. It is darn easy to set up. And, the best part: it’s free!

“It is the right thing to do. We are making it easier for everyone to make their experience when they use the Internet more private. People should not have to pay to have a more private Internet.

“Beyond that, millions of websites rely on Cloudflare for performance and security. By getting more users on 1.1.1.1, we make those sites faster. That makes Cloudflare better, and it makes the Internet better, a win-win,” Mohd Irtefa the Product Manager at Cloudflare, said in a blog post.

For those unaware, DNS services are usually provided by Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and allow you to change a domain name, for instance, like Google.com into an IP address that routers and switches can understand. DNS basically changes names of websites into numbers, which could slow down your web browsing if you aren’t using a speedy DNS server.

While Cloudflare’s 1.1.1.1 DNS service is a basic DNS server, it is different from your ISP’s or other DNS alternatives like Google Public DNS and Cisco OpenDNS, as its goal is to provide users’ faster internet connection and offer utmost privacy.

“Any time you are on a public internet connection people can see what sites you visit. Even worse, your Internet Service Provider is very possibly selling all of your browsing history to the highest bidder. We have a tool called 1.1.1.1 which makes it easy to get a faster, more private, Internet experience” added Mohd Irtefa.

The mobile app uses a support feature like VPN (virtual private network), which directs your mobile traffic towards the 1.1.1.1 DNS servers. Cloudflare’s DNS server funnels DNS traffic that not only makes it difficult for your ISP to track the sites you are visiting, but it also allows you to freely browse the site you want without having your connection censored or hijacked.

Cloudflare is committed to not tracking users or selling advertising. However, it needs to keep logs of user data for 24 hours to prevent abuse and debugging issues, after which all the logs will be purged. The company has also retained KPMG, the well-respected auditing firm, to audit their code and practices annually and publish a public report to confirm that it’s not selling user information.

The Cloudflare app is user-friendly and mobile users can easily push the on/off button to operate the DNS service. You can download the free app from Apple’s App Store and Google Play to make your internet connection faster and safer.

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Is your Device using Valid TR-069 Data Models?

Technical Report 069 (TR-069) is a unique specification designed by the Broadband Forum (BBF). It describes an application protocol for remotely managing a consumer-premise equipment linked to IP (internet protocol) network.

According to the BBF, there are several data models you can use with the consumer-premise equipment WAN management protocol. Each data model in TR 069 contains parameters and objects that define many capabilities and functions of a broadband CPE or other devices. This includes their syntax, addressable name, data types, and a normative explanation of how each can be used.

The TR-069 is RPC (remote procedure call) based protocol. That means it consists of two unique applications that directly interact with each other via a set of defined methods. For TR-069, this includes device functions such as download, reboot, and other operations that impact the device’s data model.

The TR-069 testing process involves exercising these remote procedure calls to ensure that a CPE WAN Management Protocol enabled device functions correctly whenever the RPCs are called. For instance, the device can reboot, or its settings get updated after a SetParameterValues call. It’s equally essential that a device data model parameters are always valid internally and whenever communicating them over the CPE WAN Management Protocol. This includes having the right data type, being a valid XML, and making sure that each parameter’s values are always with the options or range defined in the relevant data mode.

Validating the XML

When validating the TR-069 messages, focus on comparing them to the relevant XML schema using xmllint or any other reliable XML validator. To use CDRouter which has xmllist, set up a tr59XMLCapturePath testvar and run the xmllint from the command line. Note that issues at this level are basic, and might trip up an ACS’ XML parse when trying to perform a TR-069 interaction.

Validating a parameter

In addition to making sure that the CPE’s CWMP messages can be read by an ACS, it is equally important to be sure that the data reported (and probably stored) by the CPE perfectly matches the parameters’ syntax as specified in the CWMP device data models. This includes the fundamental syntax like using the right data type and abiding by the set restrictions or even enumeration options specified in the data model.

Generally, the rate at which TR-069 is being adopted is increasing. It is, therefore, important for the carriers and CSPs who use or plan to use the TR-069 solutions to choose a unified, robust, and scalable device management solution. As much as everyone needs a scalable solution, the TR-069 must be flexible and adaptive to take care of the changing device management options. The preferred platform should enable users to automate the deployment and support of IPTV, data, and VoIP.

Besides, the TR-069 should cater to the necessary provisions and manage devices such as routers, mobile hotspots, storage devices, gateways, IP Phones, femtocells, dongles, and IPTV STBs. Choose a platform with valid TR-069 data models for better efficiency.

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How John got robbed while shopping online on Black Friday

Like every one of you who is gearing up to be ready for the grand Black Friday sales when it goes live, John was up to the same last year. He had so much on his list that he wanted to buy on discounts.

John hardly had almost $57,560 in his bank account last year. While not all of it was to be spent on buying things on Black Friday, he did plan on spending around $2500 for a new MacBook Air that his wife wanted, and a PS4 for his son. A few days before Black Friday, John was having his morning coffee in a café, checking out the latest news and updates over free Wi-Fi that the café was providing to its customers. John decided to browse through some of the websites that were expected to offer Black Friday Discount and make nots of what to buy and from where.

Just when he was almost done with his research, he saw an ad pop up on his screen, offering the MacBook Air at 25% off. Now that was huge! John had never seen an Apple product with such a significant discount. Since the ad said that it was a limited time offer, he clicked on it right away, selected his product, and proceeded to checkout.

Things seemed great! John was already thinking to surprise his wife with a brand new MacBook Air a day before Black Friday. He quickly completed a short sign-up form, gave his credit card info, and done. Now he just had to wait a while for the package to get delivered at his address.

On Black Friday, John knew exactly what he had to buy. Without wasting any time, he proceeded to the website, selected the PS4 for his son, and proceeded to check out. But the transaction did not complete. An error “insufficient funds” surprised him first, as John knew he has enough money in his bank account to buy 10 PS4s. Why was he getting an error?

Thinking that it’s a website glitch, or that there may be too much traffic on the website, causing it to stutter, John gave it another try. However, when the same error messaged returned, the surprise turned into a shock. So he immediately picked up his phone and gave a call to his bank.

The bank had the worst news for John. Apparently, the 25% discount on the MacBook Air that John saw was a scam. It was a malicious ad, crafted in a way to make John fall for it and click on it. The malicious individual was supposedly present in the café that day, and had very tactfully made John click on the ad. When he clicked, the hacker got access to John’s laptop, allowing him to install a key logger on John’s device.

Once the key logger was in place, the hacker just had to wait for John to log in to a few of his accounts and see some of his emails and social profiles. In just a matter of time, the hacker was logged in to John’s bank account and changed his contact details, such as his phone number and email address. Once done, the hacker had control to approve transactions without alerting John with any notifications.

Having changed the contact info on John’s account, the hacker owned his money. He may have used it for online shopping, or may have purchased bitcoins using it, there was no telling. But as far as John was concerned, he had faced quite a terrible loss due to a mistake which he didn’t realize when he was making it.

That year, John had a unique New Year resolution. He wanted to make his digital identity secure, learn how to combat fraudsters online, and secure all of his sensitive data. It initially seemed like a lot to do, but then John found a great cyber security tool that does it all with the blink of an eye.

What has changed for John now?

This year, John has learned his lesson and knows how to protect himself from online scams and frauds which can rip people off, just like he got ripped last year. This Black Friday, John has installed a VPN on all of his smart devices which keeps him completely safe and secure online.

What John signed up for was PureVPN, based on the reviews he found online. The VPN has lived up to its reputation and has provided him with complete security over everything that he now does online. Any malicious ads and scams that pop up on webpages get blocked by his VPN instantly, so there is no chance of clicking on any malicious link. Moreover, the VPN provides John with the ultimate anonymity and online invisibility, which makes it impossible for any cybercriminal to pin down John’s activities and exploit them.

When John was unable to buy his wife a brand new MacBook Air, she was unhappy. But she understood John’s situation and was ready to wait. This year, John is going to buy her the latest MacBook Air 2018, which was just unveiled 2 months ago, and she couldn’t be any happier.

Here is how John’s Choice of VPN can help you too this Black Friday

  • Get completely secure online
  • Stay Completely safe over public Wi-Fi
  • Stay safe from hackers, cyber criminals, online scams, fake discounts
  • Secure all the devices you own, with the multi-login feature
  • Block all ads and malicious popups
  • Encrypt all web activity, making it impossible for anyone to keep tabs on you
  • Access deals and discounts that are not available in your region
  • Buy flight tickets for much cheaper price
  • Access services that don’t work in your area
  • The good news? John would be renewing his VPN plan with PureVPN as he already came to know about one of the best VPN deals they would be offering this Black Friday with discounts going up to a whopping 88%. So, if you are an internet user who is concerned about their security and privacy online just like John, get yourself a VPN today. This is the only way you will make it through with safety for sure, this Black Friday!

Be safe! Happy Shopping!

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PureVPN Review – Fastest VPN in the Market Right Now

The initial purpose of a virtual private network was to serve and ensure online security on corporate networks. However, as time passed, VPNs evolved into a more sophisticated tool, entailing diverse functionalities and for a wide-ranging audience.

Perhaps, its ability to cater numerous purposes is what incited its global popularity. Now, the tool is being used by millions and millions of Internet users across the six continents. The global VPN market size is expected to reach a whopping $35.73 billion by 2022.

Regardless, when we talk about virtual private networks, only a handful of names can make room in my top 10 list. One such VPN that I am going to review today is PureVPN.

Before the review, I heard many things about the VPN service regarding security issues, no-logging policy and more. So, I thought it would be better to run a PureVPN review of my own instead of relying on tittle-tattle.

Number of Servers

For starters, the VPN service is based out of Hong Kong, which is a good thing for privacy-conscious users. The country doesn’t have any data retention laws which, I believe, is something that every VPN user would want.

PureVPN currently operates one of the biggest VPN networks in the industry. The server count of the VPN service stands presently at 2,000+. Moreover, every server employs a military-grade, 256-bit encryption technology that adds more plus points under its belt. The best part is that with a treasure trove of servers comes a boatload of IP, i.e., 300,000+ IP addresses.

The VPN is well-known in the industry because it offers ample features that serve dozens of purposes such as cybersecurity, anonymity, universal unblocking, DDoS protection, online freedom, secure wireless access, P2P file sharing and more.

The cherry on the top? The premium add-ons offered by the service add extra layers of functionalities for those who are interested in an all-inclusive VPN.

The Pros & Cons

Before moving on to the details of the VPN service, let’s first take a look at some of its goods and bads:

Pros

  • 2,000+ VPN servers in 140+ countries
  • 300,000+ IPs originating from 180+ locations
  • Multiple security protocols
  • Compatibility with 25+ OS and devices
  • Up to 5 multiple logins
  • Dedicated servers for streaming, VoIP, gaming and torrenting
  • 256-bits AES Encryption Algorithm
  • DNS leak protection/ IPv6 leak protection
  • Industry’s first 31-day refund guarantee

Cons

  • You need to shell out a few bucks for a 3-day trial

Encryption & Security Protocols

Security is the most significant concern of a majority of VPN users, even for those who subscribe to a service for streaming purposes. PureVPN uses the highest, 256-bit AES encryption algorithm on its VPN servers. One important thing to note here is that it is the same encryption technology that is used by military and intelligent agencies, which is why it is also sometimes dubbed “military-grade” encryption.

When it comes to tunneling protocols, I was glad to find that the VPN service supports all the major protocols including PPTP protocol, SSTP, L2TP/IPSec, IKEv2 and OpenVPN protocol. Manual protocol selection gives users the edge to control how they want to use the VPN. For instance, if security is your primary concern, you can opt for L2TP or SSTP protocols.

For those, who are not well-versed with tunneling protocols, I would recommend leaving the protocol selection settings to “Automatic.” The VPN client will pick the optimal protocol depending on the purpose.

I should also clarify that the VPN applications for different devices don’t come with all the protocols as a built-in feature. But the good thing is that the VPN service has manual support guides that users can easily follow to set up protocols manually on their devices.

Speed and Performance

Some virtual private networks are notorious for unstable connections and poor browsing performance. Gladly, I rarely came across any connectivity or speed issues while using PureVPN application.

The VPN service offers a smooth VPN experience and speedy browsing. Although I did run into some connection problems initially, it turned out to be an installation issue at my end, particularly my OS. I reinstalled the application, and voila, I was able to connect to desired servers in a few seconds.

As far as speed is concerned, I didn’t notice any issues on my browsing, streaming or downloading speed while connected to PureVPN. On the contrary, I noticed that my latency was much lower.

I also did some stress-test on different servers for speed and performance. I concluded that the speed was reduced, as expected from any VPN, but surprisingly there wasn’t any significant drop.

Privacy Policy (No-Logging Policy)

Data-logging is a forbidden act in the VPN industry. Gladly, PureVPN hasn’t involved any such act, as far as my experience with the VPN service went. I must say, the VPN boasts one of the most transparent and detailed privacy policy in the industry, listing what information it collects, how it uses the information, cookies, third-party tools and more.

The privacy policy had me at the first line which read:

“You are Invisible – Even We Cannot See What You Do Online.”

So, I took my time and read the complete policy word by word. Talking about the data collection, PureVPN clarifies that the only data that the VPN collects comprises the name, email address, and payment method. The information is, of course, required for order processing and other relevant processes.

Secondly, regarding the data logs, the VPN service clearly states:

“We DO NOT keep any record of your browsing activities, connection logs, records of the VPN IPs assigned to you, your original IPs, your connection time, the history of your browsing, the sites you visited, your outgoing traffic, the content or data you accessed, or the DNS queries generated by you.”

However, the only thing the VPN service claims it knows is the ISP of the user and the day the user connects to a VPN location. PureVPN further states that it needs the data for troubleshooting technical issues and such.

One more thing I must mention here, PureVPN seems to be the first in the industry that is compliant to the European data privacy act, i.e., GDPR.

Prominent Features

PureVPN has a treasure trove of features to offer. Basic VPN features aside, the VPN service is also equipped with some added tools that we would hardly find in other VPNs. Let’s take a look at some prominent features of PureVPN:

Unlimited Bandwidth

There are numerous reasons why people use a virtual private network. Some use it for security purpose, while some need it for streaming, unblocking, and downloading. Regardless of what the purpose is, a VPN uses bandwidth just like any other online application. The good thing is that the VPN service doesn’t put any cap on the bandwidth usage. Therefore, as a user, we are free to browse, download or stream anything we want to our heart’s content.

Internet Kill Switch

Connection drops happen. Not so frequently, but they sure do happen. However, the connection isn’t the main problem. The main issue is the exposure of our VPN activities to the ISP when the VPN abruptly disconnects. The Internet Kill Switch is the feature that keeps users’ activity hidden by killing all the Internet activities when a disconnection occurs.

DNS Leak / IPv6 Leak Protection

IPv6 leak is a common issue in many sub-standard virtual private networks. Even though you are connected to the VPN, the DNS or IP still leaks. Well, I checked the DNS leak and IPv6 leak protection feature of PureVPN, and I was glad to find that it works. The VPN does keep my IP secure against unexpected leaks.

Split Tunneling

I am an active VPN user because I want both unblocking and security. However, there were times when I had to switch between a VPN and the regular ISP connection to connect with a local FTP server. Well, switching between VPN and ISP is pretty infuriating because it interrupts my work. Luckily, the Split Tunneling feature saved me unnecessary switching by allowing me to split the traffic between the VPN and my local ISP.

Premium Add-ons

As the name suggests, it is an added feature or tool, and its purpose is to give the user, i.e., us, more functionality and convenience.

Ozone and Gravity

Ozone is the umbrella term that the VPN service has given to its enterprise-grade security features. Ozone offers a 360o cybersecurity solution to users who want maximum security against numerous online threats. Ozone includes the following advanced security tools:

  • Antimalware – A server-level malware protection system that keeps malware from entering your network
  • IDS/IPS – An intrusion detection system and intrusion prevention system that identifies and prevents malicious traffic
  • App Filtering – As the name implies, it allows us to filter which apps can be opened or restricted on the device or network
  • URL Filtering – A great feature for families as it allows users to restrict or allow websites on the network or device.

Gravity, on the other hand, is a secure DNS service provided by PureVPN. However, it should be noted that it cannot work simultaneously with a VPN. The feature is best for users who only want to connect to a secure DNS and not a VPN.

Port Forwarding

Port Forwarding is a feature for tech-savvy users. It is something that is prevalent in the online gaming community. Online gamers often create dedicated servers for a specific group of players. Consequently, they require port forwarding to allow others to join the server using a specific port.

Apart from gamers, port forwarding can be used for remote accessing and also hosting local servers.

Port forwarding comes as an add-on by PureVPN, and like the Dedicated IP, it is offered by only a few VPNs in the industry. However, what sets PureVPN apart is that it is the only VPN service that offers a Port Forwarding features which works simultaneously with a VPN.

The add-on is available for $1.99 for a 1-month plan, and $0.99 for the 1-year and 2-year plans.

Dedicated IP

It should be noted that not every VPN service in the industry, including the “A-listers,” offer dedicated IPs. There are only a rare few VPNs that provide Dedicated IP add-on, and PureVPN is one of them.

Dedicated IP is a great add-on that can be pretty useful in numerous cases. For instance, you might require a Dedicated IP to access your home or office’s private network, local FTP servers, and such. Moreover, if you are a security-conscious person, you might need it for accessing your bank account securely from anywhere. These IPs are frequently used by businesses around the world because it allows them to control which IPs can access their network.

Regardless, PureVPN offers dedicated IPs from 8 countries including the US, the UK, Australia, Germany, Canada, Singapore, Malta, and Hong Kong. The best part is that they even offer the IPs of specific cities such as New York, US. The IPs are available at a highly affordable price, i.e., $1.99/month.

P2P Security

Torrenting or downloading via file-sharing websites is a pretty common activity among VPN users. Some users subscribe to a VPN service specifically for torrenting. Anyway, it is important to note that not every torrent is reliable or trustworthy. Some troublemakers create malicious torrents that end up leaking users’ activity or harming their devices. The P2P protection add-on of PureVPN is built for the sole purpose of preventing users from downloading any malicious torrent and thus keeping users’ system safe.

Compatibility

I found another good thing about the VPN service is that it doesn’t hesitate to cater a wider audience. What I mean is that VPN users aren’t limited to Windows, Mac, iOS or Android. In fact, as a VPN user myself, we might need a VPN for our gaming console so that we can access location-locked games. Likewise, we might require a VPN for accessing add-ons on Kodi. PureVPN seems to understand the diverse uses of a VPN and which is why it has built compatible VPN applications for a wide breadth of devices, consoles or operating systems.

Following are some of the devices I found on their Support center:

  • Windows
  • Android
  • iOS
  • Mac
  • Linux (different versions)
  • Kodi
  • Roku
  • Amazing FireTV/FireStick
  • Android/Apple TV
  • Routers
  • Playstation (PS3/PS4)
  • Xbox
  • Routers
  • Etc.

The support center of PureVPN has step-by-step tutorials on all the devices and operating systems that are listed here.

Unblock Netflix, Hulu & More

I will keep this section short. PureVPN does support Netflix, Hulu and other streaming services that have geo-restriction problems. I also found it pretty surprising because there are not many VPNs that support Netflix because the streaming service always stays a step ahead when it comes to blacklisting VPN IPs.

Anyway, PureVPN allows unblocking of a great number of geo-restricted streaming services through its app.

Final Thoughts

Every VPN service has its goods and bads. But, the deciding factor always is, “Does the good outweigh the bad?” In PureVPN’s case, it seems the pros do overshadow the cons

For instance, it has a good pool of VPN servers and IPs. It has some great add-ons such as Dedicated IP and Port Forwarding. More importantly, it is available at a reasonable price.

Well, that was my review of the service and conducting several tests. I leave the choice up to you.

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IP Address – Everything You Should Know About It

Nowadays, most of us have been familiar with the use of the Internet. But not many of us know exactly what kind of process happens behind the surfing activities through it. Well, let us start with the definition of what the Internet means.

The Internet and an IP Address

The internet is an interconnected computer network in the world. In order to communicate and exchange data, the computer requires an address as an identity. That address is what is globally referred to as an IP Address. IP is actually an abbreviation of Internet Protocol. In other words, an IP Address is a unique identification address that is owned by each computer and other devices that are connected in a computer network. It has 2 main parts, namely Net Id and Host Id. What is meant by unique here is that each computer or other connected device has an address that cannot be the same on a computer network?

Types of IP Address

Based on the scope of its use in everyday computer networks in both local networks and public internet networks, in general, the IP Address is divided into two types, namely Public IP Address and Private IP Address. Then, when viewed from how users configure to obtain an IP Address or how the IP Address is given to a computer or device, the IP Address is divided into 2 types, namely Dynamic IP Address and Static IP Address. More information about the Public, Private, Dynamic, and Static IP address can be read here.

Furthermore, judging from the capacity of a computer or other device connected to a computer network, an IP Address is divided into 2 types, namely: IPv4 and IPv6.

IP Address Version 4 (henceforth, IPv4)

IP Address version 4, or better known as IPv4, is the most commonly used version recently. This type of IP address consists of 4 octets, where each octet is able to handle 255 computers or devices in it. So, the total capacity is 255 to the fourth, which will result in 4,228,250,15 hosts. This large number for advanced technology as it is now being irrelevant to accommodate the addressing of all connected computers and devices. To overcome this limitation, one of the solutions if by using Network Address Translation (henceforth, NAT). NAT can be defined as a way to divide, change, and modify the mapping of an IP Address.

IP Address Version 6 (henceforth, IPv6)

IP Address version 6, which is abbreviated as IPv6 is the latest version of the address in the computer network. It was created to deal with the problem of limited power from the previous version (the IPv4). Compared to IPv4, which only has 4 octets and each octet can hold 255 hosts, IPv6 has four times octets, which is 16 octets. Like that of the IPv4, each octet can hold 255 hosts. So if it is calculated in total, IPv6 can accommodate around 3.4 trillion hosts.

To use Purpose: Datacenter vs Residential IP Proxies:

Which One Suits You Best?

The next thing you need to know is that when you are about to do some activities using the Internet and do not want to reveal your information, you can use what so called as a VPN or a proxy server. It will show a different IP Address from a different location. But before discussing proxy servers in further, do you know what is meant by the proxy itself?

Proxy is a server that provides services to continue each of our requests to other servers on the internet. While the proxy server is a service provider that becomes an intermediary or gateway between the client computer and the web server to be able to connect to the internet.

Datacenter IP Proxies

Datacenter proxies can be said as the most-used proxies in the world. However, there are still many users who do not have any idea about how a datacenter proxy works in detail. That is why it is a good thing to learn a little bit about it so that you can understand the pros and cons of using it, and It’s know as the dedicated IPs Proxies or Private Proxies and a lot of discussion on Here.

There is no relation between your datacenter proxy and your internet connection. Usually, the datacenter proxies are sold in a package along with various IP addresses. Each of the proxies will be accompanied by an IP Address, but again, these addresses will not relate to the internet service provider. When you are using it, it will cover your identity and location by providing a new different IP address. It will make as if you are currently surfing somewhere in a different location.

This type of proxies can give you a dozen benefits. The main benefit it can offer is that the identity cover-up. This will enable you to scrape data or anything you want to do without having your identity being disclosed. Besides, what makes people love to use datacenter proxies is the fact that they can change the location of the IP Address so that they can watch a certain website that might be banned in their real locations. All of these conveniences do not make datacenter proxies expensive. They usually cost only a few dollars for a month use. The only disadvantage that you can get is that these proxies will not trace back to the provider of your internet service.

Residential IP Proxies

The basic thing you have to understand is that whenever you are connected to the Internet, you will automatically get a residential IP address. The IP address will enable you to get an access to many websites and it can also identify who you are.

Then, What about the residential proxies? The research of StupidProxy.com have explained it carefully and show the Proxy providers can rent and sell the personal IP addresses to someone who lives in a different location, It’s works on the peer-to-peer proxy networks.

This type of proxies also has advantages and disadvantages. First, they are rarely blacklisted since they have legitimate IP addresses. However, if the residential proxies you buy is the stolen IP addresses, they might be blocked because of a crackdown. But this will happen only if the service providers find out about them. The last drawback is that they cost more expensive than the datacenter proxies.

Summary

After learning about what IP address is and type of IPs. You can learn the differences, pros, and cons about Datacenter and Residential Proxies, you may decide which one suits you best and meets your needs perfectly.

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Best Free Music Download Sites That are Completely Legit

Free Music Download Sites That Are Completely Legal

The internet has completely transformed the way we access, store, and listen to our favourite music. That said, finding websites that are legal and offer free music is a somewhat tricky process and often ends up being another foolish advertisement. Well, if you have been looking for the best free music download sites then you are reading the right blog.

So these are some of the best free music download sites that are completely legal to use and provide impressive music quality from different genres.

ALSO READ: 10 Best Free Music Downloader Apps For Android

Here is the list of Best Free Music Download sites

SoundCloud

Use Soundcloud to download music for free

SoundCloud is one of the most popular music streaming and downloading service that has an extensive collection of more than 150 million songs. If you prefer exploring new music then remixes, beats, remakes and EDM’s created by indie artists will impress you.

SoundCloud is an entirely free music streaming service. In addition to that, a majority of creators allow free downloads making SoundCloud a free music download site.

SoundCloud has a clean and very intuitive UI and offers reliable streaming speed. Once you are tired of listening to music, you can listen to your favourite podcasts on SoundCloud.

SoundCloud Best Features

  • An extensive collection of songs and podcasts.
  • Good Streaming Speeds.
  • Ability to upload self-created songs.
  • Discover talented yet underrated artist

VISIT SoundCloud

Amazon Music 

Best free music download sites

Amazon Music is the next music streaming and downloading service that has a dedicated section for free music. You can find all sort of music genres available as one-click downloads.

The music downloaded from the free section is automatically added to your Amazon cloud account. Consequently, this music can be accessed on any computing device having an internet connection.

If you like the UI and quality of music available on Amazon Music during the trial period then  you can opt for the Amazon Prime subscription. The prime subscription helps utilize Amazon Music to its full potential.

Amazon Music Best Features

  • Dedicated section for free songs.
  • Cloud-based storage and delivery.
  • Radio stations of artist, genres

VISIT Amazon Music

Jamendo Music

Jamendo Music is one among the best free music download sites that is entirely legal. Similar to SoundCloud a majority of content on Jamendo is independent music.

Jamendo Music has its native iOS, Android, and Windows PC and tablet app. So you can enjoy your favourite music on the go.

The songs on Jamendo are protected by Creative Commons license, making the download process completely legal and secure. If you prefer exploring new music from different genres then Jamendo Music will definitely impress you.

Jamendo Music Best Features

  • Fast Download Speeds.
  • A simple, clean, and intuitive UI.
  • An extensive collection of songs from indie creators and upcoming artists.

VISIT Jamendo Music

PureVolume

best free music download site

PureVolume is a perfect social media platform for music enthusiasts. Well, both artists and listeners can create their profile and interact with each other.

PureVolume allows artists to upload and share their creations and listeners can upvote these tracks. Creators can even share updates about new music and grow an organic fan base. You can find an extensive collection of covers and remixes on PureVolume.

A majority of artists allow users to freely download and stream their songs. Though there are some premium tunes that users can buy and support the artist at the same time. All these nifty features make PureVolume one of the best free music download sites.

PureVolme Best Features

  • Good interaction tools.
  • Creators can grow a fan base and get reviews on their work.

VISIT PureVolume

SoundClick

One of the best site for downloading music from artist's site itself

SoundClick offers an impressive collection of songs which can be directly downloaded from the artist’s website. If an artist is offering free music downloads on his site, chances are you will definitely find that artist listed on SoundClick.

Songs on SoundClick are either available for free or you have to buy them based on creator’s preference.

Content on SoundClick is very well segregated into different sections like electronic, hip-hop, jazz, urban and much more. In addition to that, this free music download site also offers effective searching and exploring tools.

SoundClick Best Features

  • Radio option that allows users to sample music.
  • An extensive collection of songs from indie creators and upcoming artists.
  • 160kbps and 320kbps songs stream.

VISIT SoundClick

Internet Archive

Download music for free from Internet archives

Internet Archive is the best website for downloading anything for free. Well, the Audio Archive section offers free music and audio downloads. Audio Archive has an extensive collection of more than 2 million songs and audio files.

Filters like media type, year, collection, language make searching content on Audio Archive a breeze. That said, content is not organized in a proper way and the UI feels a bit cluttery.

Audio Archive also displays the number of views and like on a particular audio track. Lastly, users can even write reviews every music file on Internet Archive.

Internet Archive Best Features

  • Humongous collection of more than 2 million songs.
  • Live music and radio channels.

VISIT Internet Archive

Last[dot]fm

best free music download sites

Last.fm is a popular online radio service, that doubles up as one of the best sites to download music for free. The internet-based radio service streams latest tracks that are popular worldwide.

This service also has a dedicated section for ‘free mp3 songs download‘. That said, the collection of songs is not so big as compared to other websites on the list.

There’s no need of creating an account neither for listening to songs nor to download free Mp3 songs. The website provides one-click downloads. You can enjoy some of the best and latest audio tracks via this online radio service.

Last.fm Best Features

  • No need of creating an account to download songs.
  • Users can enjoy the latest songs from this online radio service.
  • Native iOS, Android, and Windows application.

VISIT Last.fm

Wynk

Wynk is a Free music website for its subscribers.

The next perfect website for streaming completely free music is Wynk. You can find a massive collection of regional and Bollywood songs on Wynk. Furthermore, there’s no need of signing up for the service if you want to stream songs.

It is owned by Airtel Cellular. That said if you own an Airtel sim or broadband connection then you can avail the service for free. Wynk offers reliable streaming speeds and UI seems to be very well developed.

Wynk also has its native iOS, Android, and Windows apps, that helps retain your playlists, queue, and favourite songs on the go. Overall, its a perfect website for streaming free songs from popular artists.

Wynk Best Features

  • Fast Streaming speeds.
  • An extensive collection of the latest songs.
  • Well-developed UI.

VISIT Wynk

Also Check out15 of the Best Sites to Download Movies for Free

YouTube

Listen to Music for Free

Another popular service for streaming music is YouTube. We all know that we can’t download songs from YouTube, but what YouTube offers is truly impressive.

Youtube provides the fastest streaming speeds and the ability to create playlists as per our preference. Furthermore, you can find almost every popular song that has been recorded on YouTube. In addition to that, you can also enjoy music videos on YouTube.

Unlike other websites, you can find all of the latest music on YouTube. Lastly, YouTube also has dedicated music playlists for almost every popular music creator.

YouTube Best Features

  • Fastest streaming speeds.
  • Availability of Music Videos.
  • Humungous collection of songs.

VISIT YouTube

MP3[dot]com

Download old songs for free

MP3.com is one of the oldest websites that offer free music downloads. The content library of MP3.com is not as big as other websites on the list, but it definitely has some good content produced by upcoming artists and indie creators.

You can easily find a good collection of retro music consisting of playlists from the ’80s, ’90s, and ’00s.

MP3[dot]com redirects users to purchase songs from Amazon. That said, you can still find many free songs on this website. Well, MP3.com can be considered as a music exploration tool.

MP3.com Best Features

  • Retro Songs.
  • A detailed description of songs.
  • Well curated playlists.

VISIT MP3.com

Also Read-

CONCLUSION

So these were some of the best free music download sites that are completely lega to use. Do share any other website that you use for downloading and streaming songs, in the comments section below.

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Global Internet May Crash In The Next 48 Hours

Global Internet May Crash In The Next 48 Hours

The Internet and thousands of services associated with it are as necessary as oxygen for survival in the 21st century. Everyone relies on the Internet for communication. Well, Internet users across the globe may experience connection failures for the next 48 hours.

This major Internet crash will even affect major services like Google, Facebook, and Twitter.

Global Intenet May Crash Due To Some Maintenance

The main domain servers and related infrastructure controlling the worldwide internet will be powered down by the Internet Corporation of Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). Well, the reason behind this crash is some important maintenance work.

Also Read- Meet the hacker who brought down the Internet

ICANN will be changing the cryptographic key that helps protect the Domain Name System (DNS). It is worth noting that, DNS helps users to access the Internet by translating a domain name into an IP address so that a computer can read it.

According to the Communications Regulatory Authority (CRA), “It’s an important measure to ensure a secure, stable, and resilient DNS”. Furthermore, ICANN has also carried out preliminary tests so as to confirm that the problems faced by users across the globe will be minimal.

Global Intenet Crash: Major Issues

As mentioned earlier, billions of users will be affected by the important maintenance work carried out by ICANN. Well, users may face some difficulties while accessing web pages and online services within the next 48 hours. Moreover, the Internet pages will load slowly as compared to normal speeds.

That said, there’s nothing to fear as a functional server will offer reliable internet connection even if one of the servers is temporarily turned off. The process of changing cryptographic keys is necessary so as to maintain security and safeguard worldwide web against growing threats for the internet infrastructure.

Also Read- What Will Happen If Entire Internet Goes Down

Well, if you have made it so far do share your opinions on Global Internet crash that will be experienced by millions of users.

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Is your VPN 100% secure?

If I were to ask you this question right now, could you answer “yes” with complete confidence? Because, if you did, there’s a big chance that you may be wrong.

Recent studies have shown that even the most popular VPNs actually leak your data. This is disconcerting news, I know. A VPN is supposed to keep your identity secure while keeping your internet traffic private.

Now, the next important question is “Why?”.

Why VPNs leak your data

First, let’s get to the core of the problem. What type of data do VPNs actually leak? It’s a little-known fact among everyday folk that Internet domains are either IPv4 or IPv6.

These simply mean Internet Protocol version 4 or 6. You see, Internet Protocol is the communication system that provides an identification and location system for our computers and also routes Internet traffic.

IPv4 was the fourth version of the Internet protocol and the first version used in production in the ARPANET way back in 1983. It uses a 32-bit code which consists of four sets of three digits. IPv4 still routes most Internet traffic even today.

On the other hand, IPv6 is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol and uses a 128-bit address consisting of eight sets of four characters. It was developed as the solution to the long-anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion and was supposed to replace IPv4. IPv6 became an Internet standard 1 year ago on 14 July 2017.

The two protocols were not designed to be interoperable. This brings us to the reason why VPNs are leaking your data:

Traffic redirection.

According to the study:

“The problem stems from the fact that routing tables are a resource that is concurrently managed by the operating system, which is unaware of the security requirements of the VPN client,”

This means that the VPNs’ tunnels were secure– the problem arose from the VPN client operation. This is big news because it means that IPv6 VPN users are in danger of data leaks and/or DNS hijacking. The study goes on to say that:

“The vulnerability is driven by the fact that, whereas all VPN clients manipulate the IPv4 routing table, they tend to ignore the IPv6 routing table. No rules are added to redirect IPv6 traffic into the tunnel. This can result in all IPv6 traffic bypassing the VPN’s virtual interface.”

This meant that any change to the routing table, whether intentional or otherwise, could result in the traffic “escaping” the tunnel and being leaked. This may be due to the fact that most VPNs have yet to implement IPv6 support because of the difficulty of the transition process.

Let’s take a step back for a moment to take a closer look at the dangers this may cause: IPv6 and DNS hijacking.

It’s a no-brainer that a leaky VPN is a serious matter. After all, we use VPNs to hide our identity and our internet traffic in the first place. A VPN that can’t even do that is like having a parachute with holes- basically useless and very dangerous.

DNS hijacking, though, is a whole different matter. This type of attack is potentially disastrous if you run a website.

Firstly, just so we’re on the same page, DNS stands for Domain Name System. It’s like an online directory of domain names. Every time you search for something on the web, your browser makes a query that it courses through your ISP.

Your ISP then runs this query through the system. Here, your browser then looks through each “phonebook” which directs it to the next one until you get to the right address.

DNS hijacking exploits this system by going upstream and placing false entries that divert all traffic away from your website. Not only does your site traffic dry up eventually but it could also lead to malware being distributed en masse by these hackers- and we all know how disastrous malware can be.

Going back to the VPNs that leak user data, it becomes even scarier because the study included VPNs that were at the top of their game- and found that they were vulnerable to both IPv6 leaks and DNS hijacking.

Now:

How do you find out if your VPN is leaking? Answer: Test it for yourself.

  1. Check your IP prior to testing. This is as easy as googling “what’s my IP”. The result will then show you your current IP.
  2. Next, turn on your VPN.
  3. Once it’s on, go to IPLeak. The site automatically runs its tests. If you find that your current IP differs from the IP shown on the tests (while your VPN is active), it means that your VPN is not leaking your DNS info.
  4. Just to be sure, go to  DNSLeakTest and select “extended test” (first with your VPN turned off and again with it turned on). If the results of the second test (VPN on) show any servers that your VPN does not provide, it means that your VPN has a DNS leak.

IPLeak is usually enough to determine if your VPN is suffering DNS leaks but DNSLeakTest has been known to detect leaks that IPLeak may have missed.

Conclusion

So, not even (most of) the popular VPNs are safe from IPv6 leaks and DNS hijacking.

Does this mean that all VPNs leak your data?

Answer: No.

While IPv6 leaks may be a problem to most VPNs because of the difficulty of the transition process, there are some VPNs currently on the market that have stayed one step ahead and made the difficult (and expensive) jump to IPv6 support.

One VPN that made this jump is CyberGhost. The company built their latest version to support IPv6 which means all the features their users enjoyed before are carried over even if those same users transition from IPv4 to IPv6.

This VPN is as secure as VPNs get, is pretty easy to use, and (surprisingly) affordable to boot! But, hey, don’t just take my word for it. Check out this CyberGhost review and see for yourself.

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