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Download This Cheat Sheet To Learn Basic Linux Commands

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New to Linux? Learn the basic Linux commands with this cheat sheet

Linux is the flavor for programmers and wannabe hackers today as it is slowly and steadily being adopted for standalone PCs in addition to networked PCs. One of the basic reasons it is so popular among coders and hackers is its rugged command line structure, unlike Windows and Mac based PCs.

Linux was designed around a strong and highly integrated command line interface. Windows and Mac don’t have that. This grants hackers and coder far greater access and control over their system and awesome customization. This is the reason that most hacking and pen testing tools are built into Linux have greater functionality above and beyond their windows counterparts. In contrast, Windows was built around the graphic user interface (GUI). This restrict user interaction to point-and-click navigation (slower) and application/system menu options for configuration.

One of the chief requirements to master Linux is to master its command line structure. Master the command line and you’ll be able to perform powerful tasks with just a few keystrokes.

The below cheat sheet will help you remember helpful Linux commands, whether you’re new to Linux or could just use a refresher.

Linux Cheat Sheet

For those who wish to copy the commands in the image directly, here goes

  • mkdir – make directories
    Usage: mkdir [OPTION] DIRECTORY…
    eg. mkdir lhn
  • ls – list directory contents
    Usage: ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. ls, ls ­l, ls lhn
  • cd – changes directories
    Usage: cd [DIRECTORY]
    eg. cd lhn
  • pwd ­-  print name of current working directory
    Usage: pwd
  • vim – Vi Improved, a programmers text editor
    Usage: vim [OPTION] [file]…
    eg. vim lhn.txt
  • cp – copy files and directories
    Usage: cp [OPTION]… SOURCE DEST
    eg. cp sample.txt sample_copy.txt
    cp sample_copy.txt target_dir
  • mv – move (rename) files
    Usage: mv [OPTION]… SOURCE DEST
    eg. mv source.txt target_dir
    mv old.txt new.txt
  • rm ­ remove files or directories
    Usage: rm [OPTION]… FILE…
    eg. rm file1.txt , rm ­rf some_dir
  • find – search for files in a directory hierarchy
    Usage: find [OPTION] [path] [pattern] eg. find file1.txt, find ­name file1.txt
  • history – prints recently used commands
    Usage: history
  • cat – concatenate files and print on the standard output
    Usage: cat [OPTION] [FILE]…
    eg. cat file1.txt file2.txt
    cat ­n file1.txt
  • echo – display a line of text
    Usage: echo [OPTION] [string] …
    eg. echo I love India
    echo $HOME
  • grep ­- print lines matching a pattern
    Usage: grep [OPTION] PATTERN [FILE]…
    eg. grep ­i apple sample.txt
  •  wc ­- print the number of newlines, words, and bytes in files
    Usage: wc [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg.  wc file1.txt
    wc ­L file1.txt
  • sort – sort lines of text files
    Usage: sort [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. sort file1.txt
    sort ­r file1.txt
  • tar – to archive a file
    Usage: tar [OPTION] DEST SOURCE
    eg. tar ­cvf /home/archive.tar /home/original
    tar ­xvf /home/archive.tar
  • kill – to kill a process(using signal mechanism)
    Usage: kill [OPTION] pid
    eg. kill ­9 2275
  • ps – report a snapshot of the current processes
    Usage: ps [OPTION]
    eg. ps,  ps ­el
  • who – show who is logged on
    Usage: who [OPTION]
    eg. who , who ­b , who ­q
  • passwd – update  a user’s authentication tokens(s)
    Usage: passwd [OPTION]
    eg. passwd
  •  su –  change user ID or become super­user
    Usage: su [OPTION] [LOGIN]
    eg. su remo, su
  • chown – change file owner and group
    Usage: chown [OPTION]… OWNER[:[GROUP]] FILE…
    eg. chown remo myfile.txt
  • chmod – change file access permissions
    Usage: chmod [OPTION] [MODE] [FILE]
    eg. chmod 744 calculate.sh
  • zip – package and compress (archive) files
    Usage: zip [OPTION] DEST SOURSE
    eg. zip original.zip original
  • unzip – list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive
    Usage: unzip filename
    eg. unzip original.zi
  • ssh – SSH client (remote login program)
    “ssh is a program for logging into a remote machine and for
    executing commands on a remote machine”
    Usage: ssh [options] [user]@hostname
    [email protected]
  • scp – secure copy (remote file copy program)
    “scp copies files between hosts on a network”
    Usage: scp [options] [[user]@host1:file1] [[user]@host2:file2]
    [email protected]:~/Desktop/
  • fdisk – partition manipulator
    eg. sudo fdisk ­l
  • mount – mount a file system
    Usage: mount ­t type device dir
    eg. mount /dev/sda5 /media/target
  • umount – unmount file systems
    Usage: umount [OPTIONS] dir | device…
    eg.  umount /media/target
  • du – estimate file space usage
    Usage:  du [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. du
  • df – report filesystem disk space usage
    Usage: df [OPTION]… [FILE]…
    eg. df
  • quota – display disk usage and limits
    Usage: quota [OPTION]
    eg. quota ­v
  • reboot – reboot the system
    Usage: reboot [OPTION]
    eg. reboot
  • poweroff – power off the system
    Usage: poweroff [OPTION]
    eg. poweroff
  • kate – KDE Advanced Text Editor
    Usage:  kate [options][file(s)]
    eg. kate file1.txt file2.txt
  • vim – Vi Improved, a programmers text editor
    Usage: vim [OPTION] [file]…
    eg. vi hello.c
  • gedit ­ A text Editor. Used to create and edit files.
    Usage: gedit [OPTION] [FILE]…
    eg. gedit
  • bg – make a foreground process to run in background
    Usage: type ‘ctrl+z’  and then ‘bg ‘
  • fg – to make background process as foreground process
    Usage: fg [jobid]
  • jobs – displays the names and ids of background jobs
    Usage: jobs
  • sed ­  stream editor for filtering and transforming text
    Usage: sed [OPTION] [input­file]…
    eg. sed ‘s/love/hate/g’ loveletter.txt
  • awk ­ pattern scanning and processing language
    eg.  awk ­F: ‘{ print $1 }’ sample_awk.txt
  • find ­ search for files in a directory hierarchy
    Usage: find [OPTION] [path] [pattern] eg. find ­name file1.txt
  • locate – find or locate a file
    Usage: locate [OPTION]… FILE…
    eg. locate file1.txt
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Vijay Prabhu

Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. ― Mahatma Gandhi 

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