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Ways to avoid spam when using internet

Spam is anything (it could be an email, advertising, website link or anything else) which is annoying to an internet user and it is one of the biggest issues in this digital era and can also lead a user towards hacking. It could also be a single text message that contains unpleasant advertisements and is sent to the recipients who never agreed to receive. It is always hard to prevent spammy messages or emails once you are on the list of spammers, but there are several ways to avoid spam when using the internet and some of them are listed below in this article.

Tips to minimize the risk of getting spammed on internet

Don’t disclose your email address

Chances of getting spammed are always higher when your email address is easily available on internet whether in your social media profile or on a directory website. So always make sure you are not revealing your email address anywhere on the internet and if it is necessary to communicate then also make sure how it would be used by the company or website with whom you are about to share. Whether you are commenting on a blog post or about to take part in a survey with your email address, understand how they will keep your email address safe from third parties to help you prevent spam.

Use different emails accounts

Using different email accounts is one of the best ways to avoid spam when using internet. Always keep your business emails away from personal accounts by making a new professional email account. If you often subscribe for email lists or use email ID for other purposes, it would be advisable for you to make one more for this purpose to stay away from spammers. Try to use a third email address when subscribing for a newsletter, commenting on blogs or providing your feedback etc.

Turn off read receipts and images

Turn off the read receipts and images immediately if there is an option available with your email service provider. In this way, spammers will be unable to detect whether their emails are read or not. Turning images in your email messages off is the best possible way to prevent any type of unwanted advertisements sent from the spammers.

Use a spam filter

Use of the spam filters is the best way to prevent email spam as it can block all the spammy emails and will only send the useful emails to your inbox. Simply find out the best spam filtering service and implement with your personal or business email address to keep yourself away from spam email messages.

Use contact us forms instead of posting your emails

As a regular internet user, if there is a request from a website or any other online source to contact, always ensure to use contact us forms instead of posting your email or any other personal details there. Through this way, you can easily prevent spam and cyber security threats as well.

Never reply to anonymous email senders

If there are some emails in your inbox with strange or anonymous details, never ever reply back to them as these can be the messages sent from spammers either to hack your personal details or for the purpose of identity theft. So, always respond to the emails that are known to you in order to avoid spam.

Always use CAPTCHAS

If more than a few ‘contact us’ or other forms are published on your website, then try to use CAPTCHAS for each of them, in this way, you can meaningfully lessen the spam activities on your site to keep it safe from search engine penalties and other security related issues.

Make your site or blog secure with HTTPS

Making your site secure with HTTPS protocol should be one of the major concerns not only to prevent spam on your site or blog but to ensure users safety as well. A site which is not using the SSL certificate is very easy for hackers to hack or steal useful data from the database. Nowadays, Google is loving the sites with HTPPS protocol as the world’s biggest search engine always prefer its users’ security when providing appropriate results to their queries.

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How Safe Are You While Trying To Order An Essay Online?

The recent increase in students trying to maximise their time at college has led to more essays and papers being ordered than ever. This can be related to many things like change in mentality towards seeking help and also advances in online business. Whichever the reason this is becoming more acceptable all over the world. This also can bring more troubles and opens the door to potential hacking.

As with completing any online transactions you need some basic online security and follow sensible protocol:

–    First up, always have an up to date malware or virus scanner. This will depend on what operating system you are running and if you want to pay for the scanner, but there are reliable free ones up to the task.

–    Never type in your credit card details into a dodgy looking websites and without the little secure padlock symbol in the address bar.

–    Lastly, always listen to what friends and colleagues say about buying something online. If you don’t know anybody that has successfully used it without problems then maybe give it a miss.

So now we covered the basics, this still doesn’t mean you cannot be scammed out of your hard-earned money.

Many fake online companies can try to either get you to pay for something that will not arrive or convince you to download something that will infect your computer.

We conducted some research into different essay writing services, some of which were recommended and others we found with an online search. The best overall service reviewed for security would go to EssayPro. This service offers custom essay help and other useful services for students and professionals like proofreading and tutoring.

Impressively they only need an email address to sign up which can comfort anyone wanting to use the site anonymously. This will also safeguard you from being a victim of identity theft, which is still on the rise online and in person. You should always give the minimum amount of personal details online as scammers can build up a profile of you by piecing together all the different bits of information. Afterwards, the scammers can order loans or purchase items all in your name. They also claim only to keep details collected for the length of time you are a signed up with the site and remove all details of membership after leaving.

Another reason they impressed us was due to the payment protection on offer. The most consumer-orientated way of buying anything would be to try it first?

Well, this is exactly what they do, by letting you first download the work requested and checked it over until you are completely satisfied and only after then you release payment. This is perfect for customer satisfaction, and many other retailers should adopt this approach. The payment system was secure and easy to use. They also use a writer bidding system to ensure you get a low quote for the work as well as discounts for more significant orders.

Furthermore, they use an encrypted chat which lets you talk to your writer online and not worry about any personal details being extracted this way. Also very convenient and another critical point where they take online security seriously.

So, in conclusion it is possible to have certain security threats while ordering an essay online. Over time people need to be more clued up with general online safety to avoid any problems from new online businesses. Also with paper mill sites becoming more popular, they can only offer more protection in the future making it easy to order a paper online.

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Change Your Default DNS to Cloudflare DNS For Fast Internet Speed

cloudflare

Increase your internet speed by changing your Default DNS to Cloudflare’s 1.1.1.1 DNS

Cloudflare Inc., a website performance, and security company recently launched a new free public Domain Name System (DNS) service with 1.1.1.1 as its IP address. With the introduction of the 1.1.1.1 DNS service, Cloudflare’s is looking to increase internet connection speeds for everyone.

For those unaware, DNS is a set of numbers that is assigned by your respective ISPs (Internet Service Providers) to connect to the World Wide Web (www). A DNS service/server is a network component that translates the name of the website you want to visit into the IP address that matches that website and then connects to your ISP to load pages over the web. In other words, it translates more readily memorized domain names to the numerical IP addresses needed for the purpose of locating and identifying computer services and devices with the underlying network protocols. By providing a worldwide, distributed directory service, the DNS is an essential component of the functionality of the Internet.

Why is your ISPs DNS slow in comparison to Cloudflare’s DNS?

Basically, your ISP is into the business of providing you with the Internet to make money. Naturally, they try to squeeze as many DNS’s as possible out of the range that is available to them. Each time you connect to your ISP, it assigns you a dynamic IP address through which you connect to the Internet. This often creates slow relay speeds and connection issues.

On the other hand, Cloudflare claims that their new 1.1.1.1 DNS service is now 28% faster than any other DNS services like OpenDNS or GoogleDNS, as computer/smartphone/tablet will start determining domain names within a blazing-fast speed of 14.8 milliseconds.

Further, Cloudflare also focuses on maintaining user’s privacy by stopping ISPs from collecting their browser history. The new service would be committed to going beyond not using browsing data to help target advertising for which they have hired KPMG to examine its systems and audit their code and practices to guarantee it’s not actually collecting users’ data. It will also not be logging querying IP address permanently and would clean out all logs within 24 hours unlike other 3rd party DNS services, which knows everything that the user does on the Internet.

How To Change Your Default DNS To Cloudflare DNS To Boost Internet Speed

We are going to show you how you can change your default DNS to Cloudflare DNS on devices like Windows PC, Mac PC, and Android that will provide you the maximum bandwidth limit and give you better internet speed. If you don’t like the new settings, you can always switch back to the default DNS settings of your ISP.

Steps To Manually Setup Cloudflare DNS:

For Windows 10 PCs:

Step 1: Firstly, go to the Control Panel in your Windows PC and select Network and Internet > Network and Sharing Center.

Step 2: Click on ‘Change adapter settings’.

Step 3: Here you will see all the available networks. Right-click on the Wi-Fi network you are connected to, and then click Properties.

Step 4: Click on ‘Networking Tab’ and under this tab select the option Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and then click on Properties.

Step 5: Now, choose the radio button ‘Use the following DNS server’ address. If there are any default IP written there, simply clear them and replace those addresses with the 1.1.1.1 DNS addresses:

For IPv4: 1.1.1.1 and 1.0.0.1; and

For IPv6: 2606:4700:4700::1111 and 2606:4700:4700::1001

Step 6: Click on Ok, then close and then restart your network.

For Mac PCs:

Step 1: Open System Preferences.

Step 2: Search for DNS Servers and tap it.

Step 3: Click the + button to add a DNS Server and enter 1.1.1.1 and 1.0.0.1 (for redundancy).

Step 4: Click Ok and then Apply.

For Android Devices:

Step 1: Connect to your preferred Wi-Fi network.

Step 2: Go to your browser and enter your router’s gateway IP address. Fill in your username and password, if asked.

Step 3: Locate the DNS server settings in your router’s configuration page. Then, enter any existing DNS server entries for future reference.

Step 4: Replace those addresses with the 1.1.1.1 DNS addresses:

For IPv4: 1.1.1.1 and 1.0.0.1, and

For IPv6: 2606:4700:4700::1111 and 2606:4700:4700::1001

Step 5: Save your settings, and then restart your browser.

By following the methods above for respective devices, you would be surfing the Internet using Cloudflare’s new 1.1.1.1 DNS service. Do let us know about the internet connection speeds you are experiencing by changing to Cloudflare’s new 1.1.1.1 DNS service in the comments section below.

How to Change Your Default DNS to Google DNS for Fast Internet Speeds

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Cloudflare launches 1.1.1.1, a Free and Privacy-Focused DNS Service

cloudflare 1.1.1.1 privact focused internet

Cloudflare introduces 1.1.1.1 public DNS service, said to be faster than Google DNS and OpenDNS

Cloudflare Inc., a website performance, and security company introduced a new free public domain name system (DNS) service with 1.1.1.1 as its IP address on April Fool’s day. However, this announcement is not a joke as one would assume it to be but is for real.

So, why did Cloudflare choose April 1 for the launch? Matthew Prince, CEO, and co-founder of Cloudflare in a blog post explained, “This is the first consumer product Cloudflare has ever launched, so we wanted to reach a wider audience. At the same time, we’re geeks at heart. 1.1.1.1 has 4 1s. So it seemed clear that 4/1 (April 1st) was the date we needed to launch it.”

With the launch of the 1.1.1.1 DNS service, Cloudflare’s is looking to increase internet connection speeds for everyone. Cloudflare promises the service will be “the fastest public resolver on the planet while raising the standard of privacy protections for users.”

Why does one need another DNS service when there are stalwarts like Google and Comodo? Prince says, “What many Internet users don’t realize is that even if you’re visiting a website that is encrypted — has the little green lock in your browser — that doesn’t keep your DNS resolver from knowing the identity of all the sites you visit. That means, by default, your ISP, every wifi network you’ve connected to, and your mobile network provider have a list of every site you’ve visited while using them.”

He further added, “Network operators have been licking their chops for some time over the idea of taking their users’ browsing data and finding a way to monetize it. In the United States, that got easier a year ago when the Senate voted to eliminate rules that restricted ISPs from selling their users’ browsing data. With all the concern over the data that companies like Facebook and Google are collecting on you, it worries us to now add ISPs like Comcast, Time Warner, and AT&T to the list. And, make no mistake, this isn’t a US-only problem — ISPs around the world see the same privacy-invading opportunity.”

Besides speed, Cloudflare also focuses on maintaining user’s privacy by stopping internet service providers (ISPs) from collecting their browser history. The new service would be committed to going beyond not using browsing data to help target advertising. It will not be logging querying IP address permanently and would clean out all logs within 24 hours.

“Cloudflare’s business has never been built around tracking users or selling advertising. We don’t see personal data as an asset; we see it as a toxic asset. While we need some logging to prevent abuse and debug issues, we couldn’t imagine any situation where we’d need that information longer than 24 hours. And we wanted to put our money where our mouth was, so we committed to retaining KPMG, the well-respected auditing firm, to audit our code and practices annually and publish a public report confirming we’re doing what we said we would”, Prince added in the blog post.

Further, the new service is apparently faster than the hugely popular Google DNS and OpenDNS. 1.1.1.1 claims that they are now 28% faster than any other DNS service as rated by DNSPerf.

This new service was created by APNIC, who owned the 1.1.1.1 address, and Cloudflare who will use their network to host the DNS service. It is a free DNS resolution service that can be easily set up on a mobile device, computer, or router. For those who are interested in changing the DNS server on their device, can check out 1.1.1.1’s official website for more details on how to do so for the iPhone, Android, macOS, Windows, Linux, and a router.

Source: cloudflare, betanews

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Alphabet-owned Jigsaw releases free VPN software ‘Outline’

free VPN software Outline

Google’s sibling Jigsaw launches ‘Outline’, a secure VPN for news organizations and journalists

Jigsaw, Google’s sister company, and Alphabet-owned tech incubator outfit has released a secure open-source VPN (Virtual Private Network) for news organizations so that they can safely access the open internet from anywhere and ensure the privacy of their communications with their sources, outlets, and newsdesks.

The VPN dubbed ‘Outline’, is a piece of free proxy software, that allows you to set up your own VPN server on a physical server owned by you, or on a virtual server in the cloud (using a platform such as Google Cloud Engine, Digital Ocean, Rackspace, or Amazon EC2).

“The core of the product is that people can run their own VPN. You get the reassurance that no one else has your data, and you can rest easier in that knowledge,” wrote Santiago Andrigo, Product Manager at Jigsaw in a blog post.

He says that although there are several third-party services already available on the Internet, that may hide your data from prying eyes like your ISP or the government, but the VPN provider itself can still potentially access your data. However, with Outline, there are no chances of anyone spying on user’s data. Generally, people use VPNs to access to the Internet, but they are not always safe.

Andrigo says, “Most VPNs require you to trust a third party organisation with your data, which means you’re not always sure who’s running the servers and providing your access to the Internet. Some VPNs don’t even use encryption.”

He added, “Outline gives you control over your privacy by letting you operate your own server. And Outline never logs your web traffic. We made it possible to set up Outline on any cloud provider or on your own infrastructure so you can fully own and operate your own VPN and don’t have to trust a VPN operator with your data.”

According to the company, the software also uses “strong encryption” to keep the user’s data private. It supports modern AEAD 256-bit cipher encryption, and “is resistant to probing and stronger against protocol fingerprinting, which makes it significantly harder to block by modern deep-packet-inspection software.”

In addition, Jigsaw claims that it is very easy to setup Outline, and with the security updates getting installed automatically, you need not worry about keeping software up-to-date. “With Outline Manager, you can create a server and share access with unlimited accounts. Use your own infrastructure or a cloud provider, many of which offer plans that start around $5 per month,” said Andrigo.

Outline is the completely open source and was audited by the Netherlands-based non-profit cybersecurity firm, Radically Open Security.

Currently, the Outline app is available on Android (Android 5 and above), Windows (Windows 7.0 and above), and Chrome OS (Chrome OS 64 and above) devices, with the Mac and iOS versions expected in the near future.

Just after its release, Outline has already created controversy. Famous cyber-security researcher Dan Guido, who leads a New York-based security firm ‘Trail of Bits’ has claimed that Jigsaw has plagiarized his work, an open source VPN software, AlgoVPN, which was released back in 2016.

Jigsaw has not yet commented on the accusation. It would be interesting to see how this controversy unfolds in the future. Keep watching this space for more updates!!!

Source: medium

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Keeping an Eye on Your IP Address

Identity theft reached new heights in 2017, especially in terms of non-credit card-based fraud. In response, public interest in information security has been growing slowly but surely, especially with regard to the threat of identity theft. Unfortunately, one major concept has gotten muddled somewhere down the line: the IP address.

If you were to go by the indications of news reports and TV shows, you’d probably think of an IP address as something of a digital signature that allows you to pick out a single person from the immense population of the internet. That much is more or less correct. You might, however, also think that with an IP address, you can dredge up a user’s personal details and pinpoint their location. That’s only sort of correct.

While an IP address is a useful thing to know, on its own, it’s an innocuous piece of information that’s more technical than personal. A proper understanding of it is important for online safety, so let’s take a closer look at what an IP address is and what it’s not.

IP Address at a Glance

An IP address is a code assigned to a device by an internet service provider (ISP), which identifies in when it uses internet protocol. It’s denoted as a set of numbers. Since websites and programs rely on an IP address to deliver information to a computer, it’s worth noting that getting an IP address is, in itself, easy—so do away with any misconceptions that IP addresses are jealously guarded secrets.

You can easily find your own IP address by using an online tool. Such tools could be used to identify other users’ addresses too, as long as you had access to their devices. Of course, some methods can determine an IP address remotely, which is what many websites do. For example, Wikipedia revisions list the IP addresses of their editors, while ecommerce sites store and examine IP addresses to guard against fraud. Simple email scripts can also be used to identify a recipient’s IP address.

Once you have an IP address, you can examine its properties with online lookup tools. If you were to go ahead and do so, you’d find a list of details returned to you. With a quick scan you’ll probably notice that there is a name, as well as a physical address—but you might also notice that they’re not yours (or those of whoever’s IP address you entered).

Most information listed on an IP address is related to the internet service provider (ISP). Thus, any listed location—the closest you’ll get to personal details—could be anywhere from a few blocks off the mark to as vague as “in the same country.”  So while getting an IP address is easy, there’s not much to be done with it on its own.

What’s the Big Deal?

The issue surrounding IP addresses isn’t quite their value in and of themselves. After all, we’ve already demonstrated how little you get out of an IP address on its own. Rather, problem arise when IP addresses are linked to other information—they can be the key to puzzling out a person’s identity not just online, but offline as well.

As websites track IP addresses, it’s possible to effectively profile a person through the sites they visit. You could figure out when they usually browse the web, how much, for what topics and where. This is about more than simply eavesdropping, though that much is disturbing enough. It’s used most often to identify those suspected of online harassment or crime.

On the other hand, an IP address could be used to access the records attached to that address by the internet service provider (ISP) who provided it. This could yield all the data that a user submitted when opening their subscription, including name, address, number, and relevant details. It’s quite the find, but hard to come by. Without a subpoena, authorities can’t compel ID companies, who are otherwise charged with protecting customer privacy.

What You Can Do About It

While you can’t stop your device from having a readily-viewed IP address, you can make it more difficult for others to attach any information to your address, whether it’s browsing patterns or personal data. By using a virtual private network (VPN) service, you can conceal your ISP-provided IP address by using one provided by the VPN.

Furthermore, as long as you’re connected to a VPN server, all data your computer sends out or receives is encrypted, which keeps third parties from tracking your activity. This, combined with the fact that most VPN services let you regularly cycle or switch your IP address—with options for servers in various countries—makes it difficult for anyone to monitor you or pin down your online identity.

Of course, it’s not entirely without its downsides. VPNs are often used to circumvent regional restrictions, so some websites have technology in place to deter the use of VPNs. Similarly, if you use a VPN to avail yourself of an IP address in a region different from your home address, vendors and banks may suspect fraud. Take note of these before proceeding, so that you have a smooth, hassle-free VPN experience—while enjoying the benefits of increased privacy and a safeguarded online identity.

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Samsung tests 5G network on high-speed Japanese train

Samsung tests 5G on a high speed train, gets 1.7Gbps speed

Samsung successfully demonstrate 5G on high-speed moving train in Japan

Samsung Electronics and Japanese telecommunications operator KDDI recently demonstrated the fifth-generation network on a high-speed moving train travelling at over 100 km/hour (over 60 mph). Both the companies achieved a successful downlink and uplink handover as well as a peak data transmission of 1.7 Gbps during the demonstration.

The tests were carried out in Saitama, Japan, near Tokyo from October 17 through October 19. The equipment used for the test included Samsung’s 5G pre-commercial end-to-end solution, which consisted of a 5G router (CPE), a 5G Radio, virtualized core and a virtualized RAN.

“The demonstration leveraged capabilities driven by 5G, such as high throughput, low latency and massive connections, which verified potential services that would be highly beneficial to passengers and operators of high-speed trains,” Samsung said.

The test happened on a train running between two stations over a one-mile stretch of track. The companies said that they could download a 8K-quality video via a 5G router installed on-board. In addition, a recorded 4K video shot from a camera installed on the train was also uploaded in the demonstration.

Samsung says that this will “pave the way to vastly improved backhaul for onboard Wi-Fi, superior passenger infotainment and increased security and analytics.”

“The potential that 5G holds is powerful enough to transform the landscape of our daily lives,” said Youngky Kim, President and Head of Networks Business at Samsung Electronics. “The success of today’s demonstration is a result of our joint research with KDDI, which we will continue to pursue as we explore next generation networks and use cases. This will include research on diverse spectrums and technologies, as well as new business models and applications.”

Talking about revolutionizing trains through 5G tech, KDDI’s Senior Managing Executive Officer Yoshiaki Uchida said, “With 5G expected to bring railway services to a whole new dimension, the success of today’s demonstration in everyday locations such as a train and train station is an important milestone indicating 5G commercialization is near.”

Uchida added, “To fulfill our aim to launch 5G by 2020, KDDI will continue exploring real-life scenario experiments for diverse 5G use and business cases together with Samsung.”

Source: HOTHARDWARE

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Ericsson Demonstrates 5G In India: Throughput Of 5.7Gbps And Ultra-low Latency

Ericsson Demonstrates 5G In India: Throughput Of 5.7Gbps And Ultra-low Latency

5G to generate $27 billion revenue potential for Indian telcos by 2026

Swedish communications technology firm Ericsson on Friday demonstrated the first-ever live 5G end-to-end demonstration in India using its 5G test bed and 5G New Radio (NR) delivering a throughput of 5.7 Gbps and ultra-low latency of 3 millisecond.

“We are strengthening our commitment to the Indian market by pioneering the first live 5G demonstration in the country. The 5G technology showcase has been organised in the direction of creating a robust 5G eco system in the country even as the Government plans to have 5G network roll outs by 2020. 5G research and development is natural for Ericsson thanks to our innovation, R&D focus, technology leadership and thought leadership,” said Nunzio Mirtillo, Head of Market Area – SE Asia, Oceania and India, Ericsson.

The 5G technology exhibition at the Ericsson Connect 2017 featured several 5G use cases and live demonstration of essential technologies on the road to 5G like Gigabit LTE (1 GBPS download speeds) and License Assisted Access (LAA) technology.

The LAA live demo showcased how this technology can influence wireless network resources using higher frequency bands on a small cell architecture.

Other technology innovations presented in the showcase included advancements in Radio Network Evolution, 5G Ready Transport and Network Slicing. Ericsson’s new 5G platform comprises the 5G core, radio and transport portfolios, with digital support systems, transformation services and security.

“5G will bring new level of performance and characteristics to the telecom networks, enabling new services and creating new ecosystems. New revenue streams will open for operators. 5G has the potential to enable 43 per cent incremental revenue opportunity for the Indian operators by 2026,” added Nitin Bansal, Managing Director, Ericsson India.

According to the Ericsson 5G business report, 5G technology will enable a $27.3 billion revenue potential for the Indian telecom operators by 2026. This will be besides the revenue generated from traditional services, which is expected to grow up to $63 billion by 2026.

“We have MoUs (agreements) with 36 operators globally. In India, we have recently tied up with Bharti Airtel for 5G technology,” said Mirtillo. However, he did not divulge any financial details about the partnership.

Ericsson, who is already a vendor to Bharti Airtel in areas like managed services and 4G will work with Bharti Airtel on creating a planned roadmap for evolution of the network to the next-gen 5G technology.

“The largest opportunity will be seen in sectors like manufacturing, energy and utilities followed by public safety and health sectors,” a report by Ericsson said.

“5G is expected to play a major role in digitalization of industries. 5G will bring new level of performance and characteristics to the telecom networks enabling new services and creating new ecosystems. New revenue streams will open for operators as they go beyond being Connectivity and Infrastructure providers to become service enablers and service creators,” Nitin Bansal, managing director of Ericsson India, told.

The report noted that agriculture will open up revenue opportunities up to $400 million for the telecom operators. 5G applications will be in areas such as field monitoring and mapping, livestock routing and monitoring, on-field applications, and related services.

Further, the Indian retail sector will create potential 5G-enabled revenue oppurtunity of up to $1.15 billion by 2026, the report added.

Source: Business Standard

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Bye 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard, welcome the new 802.11ax Wi-Fi standard

Bye 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard, welcome the new 802.11ax Wi-Fi standard

After two long years of 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard, we could soon be having the new 802.11ax Wi-Fi standard

This article is for nerds and tech geeks. For others who use Wi-Fi, I am pretty sure they don’t even know what a Wi-Fi standard is and what standard their current Wi-Fi router or smartphone uses. For those who want to learn about Wi-Fi standards, currently most devices we use including our routers, smartphones, laptops, PCs etc support the 802.11ac Wi-Fi Standard.

What are Wi-Fi standards and how do they influence how we use the Internet?

There is an international agency called  Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) which fixes the Wi-Fi standards after due deliberation. The first 802.11 Wi-Fi standard was introduced in 1997 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). This meant that all devices that connected to the Internet at that time had to comply with the new WLAN standard. IEEE called the Wi-Fi standard as 802.11 after the name of the group formed to oversee its development. The year was 1997 and the newly introduced WLAN standard supported a maximum internet speed of 2 Mbps which you may think as too slow today but was a hit at that time.

IEEE then introduced the 802.11b Wi-Fi standard in July 1999. This new WLAN could support bandwidth up to 11 Mbps, comparable to traditional Ethernet. The 802.11b used the same radio signaling frequency (2.4 GHz) as the original 802.11 standard. While it was a big hit at that time, 802.11b signals were known to be prone to interference from microwave ovens, cordless phones, and other appliances using the same 2.4 GHz range, therefore, people placed their Wi-Fi routers and devices in a special place to avoid external interference.

Even as 802.11b was in development, IEEE created a second extension to the original 802.11 standard called 802.11a. Because 802.11b gained in popularity much faster than did 802.11a. Due to its higher cost, 802.11a is usually found on business networks whereas 802.11b better serves the home market.

The new 802.11a Wi-Fi standard supported speeds of up to 54 Mbps which was way over the 11Mbps which we started off with. Another distinguishing feature of 802.11a was that it worked on 5 GHz thus was less prone to interference from home devices but higher frequency also means 802.11a signals had more difficulty penetrating walls.

In 2002 and 2003,  IEEE came up with a newer Wi-Fi standard called 802.11g. The 802.11g combined the best of both 802.11a and 802.11b and supported bandwidth up to 54 Mbps. Unlike 802.11a, 802.11g used the 2.4 GHz frequency for greater range. 802.11g was backward compatible with 802.11b, meaning that 802.11g access points will work with 802.11b wireless network adapters and vice versa.

In 2009, IEEE introduced 802.11n Wi-Fi standard which is also called “Wireless N” network.  802.11n was vastly different from earlier standards as it utilized multiple wireless signals and antennas (called MIMO technology) instead of one. The new standard also increased the bandwidth speed to a whopping 300 Mbps. 802.11n also offered somewhat better range over earlier Wi-Fi standards due to its increased signal intensity, and it is backward-compatible with 802.11b/g gear.

After years of using 802.11n, IEEE finally introduced the 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard that we use today in 2013. Though it was developed in 2008, IEEE took a whole 5 years to commercialize the specification. 802.11ac finally broke the 1 gigs barrier and supported dual-band wireless technology. which means that we could connect to the Internet both on the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands. 802.11ac offers backward compatibility to 802.11b/g/n and bandwidth rated up to 1300 Mbps on the 5 GHz band plus up to 450 Mbps on 2.4 GHz.

From 2013 to 2017 we have been using the 802.11ac Wi-Fi standard but now a new standard is being introduced which is called 802.11ax. Qualcomm, the top chip maker has announced that it will start shipping Wi-Fi chips called the IPQ8074 system-on-chip (SoC) for broadcasters (routers and access points) and the QCA6290 SoC for receivers (Wi-Fi devices) with the 802.11ax standard.

What is 802.11ax and how is it different from the earlier 802.11ac standard?

According to Qualcomm, the 802.11ax Wi-Fi standard will be anywhere from 4x to 10x faster than existing Wi-Fi because it will work through wider and multiple channels to increase the Internet speed. For example, if one assumes the speed is increased by 4x with 160 MHz channels, the speed of a single 802.11ax stream will be 3.5Gbps. The equivalent 802.11ac connection will be 866 Mbps. A 4×4 MIMO environment would result in a total capacity of about 14 Gbps. A client device that supported two or three streams would easily top 1 Gbps or much more.

For individual users, even with interference like walls and distance, 802.11ax will give a speed of about 800 Mbps for a total capacity of 3.2 Gbps. Regardless of the channel size, 802.11ax will provide a huge boost in speed and total capacity.

802.11ax Wi-Fi standard will be less congested

802.11ax incorporates something called ODMFA. Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (ODMFA) is an LTE standard which allows frequency division multiplexing. 802.11ax uses OFDMA which lets each channel to be chopped up into hundreds of smaller sub-channels. These sub-channels can then be turned orthogonally (at right angles) so they can be stacked on top of each other and de-multiplexed.

In simple terms using OFDMA means up to 30 clients can share each channel instead of having to take turns broadcasting and listening on each.

802.11ax will increase battery life

Qualcomm has said that the new 802.11ax standard will have a big effect on the thing that matters most to all of us, battery! The new Wi-Fi standard has a new feature called wake time scheduling. This enables APs to tell clients when to go to sleep and provides a schedule of when to wake. These are very short periods of time, but being able to sleep a bunch of short times will make a big difference on battery life which matters most especially for smartphone and laptop users.

The 802.11ax specification finally brings a Wi-Fi standard to the network that can support all of the things we want to do with our wireless LANs.

Do you think the new 802.11ax standard will be as popular as 802.11ac in coming days. Do drop in your opinion in the comments section below.

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What is a ping?

What is a ping?

How does internet ping work

Ping is a type of network packet that is used to check if a machine that you want to connect to over the internet is available or not. A ping is a network packet termed an Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packet. The process of a ping is done when a machine sends an ICMP echo request packet to another machine or interface over the internet. If the receiving machine is available and is enabled to reply back, it will respond with an echo reply packet.

This not only shows us that the receiving machine is alive and working, it also helps us to identify a number of things such as total time taken, loss of packets, etc that are used to judge the reliability of the connection.  To run a ping from your Linux machine, you will need to open a terminal and write a command. The syntax of the command is “ping destination_ip” – replace “destination_ip” with the actual IP address of the machine you want to connect with.

All recent versions of Windows and Linux come enabled with the ICMP command. On Windows, the command will send 4 echo requests before stopping while Linux will continue sending echo requests until a user stops it themselves.

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